Is Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Legal or Illegal in Countries?

Published 22 September 2023
Is Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Legal or Illegal in Countries?


In the ever-evolving realm of finance and technology, few innovations have generated as much buzz and debate as cryptocurrencies, with the pioneer Bitcoin at the forefront. Since its inception, Bitcoin has not only disrupted traditional financial systems but has also raised significant questions about its legal status in countries across the globe. In this digital age where transactions transcend borders, understanding the intricate web of cryptocurrency legality has become paramount. Let’s understand is cryptocurrency legal and is Bitcoin legal and find out countries with crypto ban and those which allow crypto or have it implicitly banned.

A Brief History of Bitcoin Regulation in the World

The journey of Bitcoin regulation has been a rollercoaster ride, reflecting the growing influence and adoption of cryptocurrencies across the globe. A brief history of how is Bitcoin regulated worldwide:

2009-2011: The Early Days. In Bitcoin’s infancy, there was little to no regulatory oversight. It was largely seen as an experiment in digital currency.

2013: FinCEN Guidance (USA). The U.S. Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) issued guidance that classified Bitcoin exchanges and miners as Money Services Businesses (MSBs), subject to anti-money laundering (AML) and know-your-customer (KYC) regulations.

2013-2014: China’s Bans and Warnings. China issued a series of bans and warnings against Bitcoin, including prohibiting financial institutions from dealing with it. These measures, however, didn’t deter Chinese interest in cryptocurrencies.

2014-2015: New York’s BitLicense (USA). New York introduced the BitLicense, a regulatory framework for cryptocurrency businesses, which sparked controversy for its stringent requirements.

2017: Japan’s Recognition. Japan officially recognized Bitcoin a legal payment method, leading to a surge in cryptocurrency trading and investment in the country. It was one of the first country to regulate cryptocurrency.

2017-2018: South Korea’s Regulations. South Korea implemented regulations to curb speculation, including a ban on anonymous trading accounts.

2019-2020: India’s Legal Battle. India went through phases of uncertainty, with discussions of potential bans followed by proposals for comprehensive cryptocurrency regulations.

2021: El Salvador Bitcoin Law. El Salvador made global headlines by becoming the first country to adopt Bitcoin as legal tender, though this move sparked controversy and protests.

2021: China’s Crypto Crackdown. China intensified its crackdown on cryptocurrency activities, including banning crypto mining and prohibiting financial institutions from offering crypto services.

2021-Present: Global Regulatory Scrutiny. Many countries have intensified their regulatory efforts to address issues like consumer protection, taxation, and AML/KYC compliance as cryptocurrencies gain wider adoption.

Bitcoin regulation remains a dynamic and evolving field, with each country navigating its path in response to the challenges and opportunities presented by cryptocurrencies. As the crypto landscape continues to mature, regulatory frameworks will likely continue to adapt to strike a balance between innovation and security.

Why Is the Legal Status of Cryptocurrencies Important?

The crypto legal status is critically important for several reasons:

  1. Consumer Protection: Legal frameworks provide a level of protection for users and investors. They establish rules for exchanges, crypto wallets, and other crypto-related services to safeguard consumers from fraud, theft, and scams.
  2. Regulatory Compliance: Legal clarity ensures that individuals and businesses engaged in cryptocurrency activities understand and adhere to regulatory requirements. This helps prevent illicit activities like money laundering and terrorism financing.
  3. Investor Confidence: Investors often as is crypto illegal, or specifically, is Bitcoin illegal in the country before making investments. Institutional investors, in particular, often seek regulatory oversight as a sign of a stable and secure market.
  4. Taxation: The legal status of cryptocurrencies impacts how they are taxed. Clarity on tax treatment helps individuals and businesses accurately report their crypto-related income and transactions.
  5. Innovation: Clear regulations can encourage innovation within the cryptocurrency and blockchain space. Startups and developers may be more willing to invest time and resources when they know the legal boundaries.
  6. Global Trade: The legal status of cryptocurrencies has implications for international trade and cross-border transactions. A standardized legal framework can facilitate global cryptocurrency usage.
  7. Financial System Stability: Having Bitcoins regulated cryptocurrencies can help prevent their use in activities that may destabilize the broader financial system, such as speculative bubbles or market manipulation.
  8. Government Revenue: Governments can generate profit through taxes and fees associated with cryptocurrency transactions and businesses. Legalization allows them to tap into this potential income source.
  9. Clarity for Businesses: Clear legal guidelines enable crypto-related businesses to operate with certainty, reducing the risk of legal disputes and potential shutdowns.
  10. Technological Advancement: The legal status of cryptocurrencies can encourage the development of blockchain technology and its application in various sectors beyond finance.

Many users wonder if buying and selling cryptocurrency is legal in their countries, and the legal status helps them act within the law.

Countries with Crypto as Legal Tender

El Salvador and the Central African Republic (CAR) are the only two countries in the world where Bitcoin functions as a legal currency.

The countries where Bitcoin can be traded and hold are the USA, Canada, Israel, the European Union (EU), and others.

In the United States, Bitcoin is categorized as a money services business, subject to the Bank Secrecy Act. Some USA cities actively try to integrate crypto into their economies, like Miami and others. The European Union views tokens as assets, with varying regulations among member states. Canada considers cryptocurrencies taxable digital assets, with strict anti-money laundering measures. Israel embraces cryptocurrencies, taxing capital gains on sales. Australia taxes cryptocurrencies as digital assets, with capital gains tax on transactions. Many progressive countries have chosen not to outlaw cryptocurrency but instead regulate it to ensure financial transparency and security.

Countries Where Cryptocurrency Is Illegal

Cryptocurrencies are banned in some countries due to concerns about regulatory issues, financial stability, loss of control, consumer protection, tax evasion, criminal activity, a lack of legal frameworks, and national security. Countries where cryptocurrency is illegal are:

  • China: Banned all crypto-related activities in September 2021 due to concerns about the shadow economy.
  • Nepal: Banned crypto in September 2021, primarily due to fears of swindlers and scams.
  • Afghanistan: Also banned crypto in September 2021 after economic collapse and Taliban rule.
  • Bangladesh: Banned crypto in 2017, citing anti-money laundering and anti-terrorism concerns.
  • Morocco: Banned crypto but may reconsider in 2023 with stricter regulations.
  • Algeria: Has a total crypto ban with limited information available.
  • Egypt: Banned crypto in 2020, citing its lack of tangible asset backing.
  • Bolivia: Was the first to completely ban crypto in 2014, with ongoing efforts to overturn the ban.
  • Iraq: The Iraqi Central Bank prohibited the use of cryptocurrencies in 2017.

Crypto is also illegal in the following countries as well: Dominican Republic, North Macedonia, Qatar, Tunisia, Ghana.

These countries have implemented Bitcoin ban for various reasons, including economic concerns, fears of criminal activity, and regulatory challenges.

Countries with Implicit Bans Cryptocurrency

Countries with implicit bans on cryptocurrencies are nations where cryptocurrencies are not explicitly illegal, but they face significant regulatory hurdles or restrictions that effectively discourage their use or adoption. These restrictions can include stringent regulations, heavy taxation, lack of legal recognition, or other impediments that make it challenging for individuals and businesses to engage with cryptocurrencies. In essence, while not explicitly banned, the regulatory environment makes cryptocurrency usage difficult or discouraged in these countries. An implicit ban on cryptocurrency in certain countries has led to the emergence of loopholes enabling the continued usage of crypto despite regulatory restrictions.

Territories with implicit restrictions are Cameroon, Libya, Zimbabwe, Madeira, Mexico etc.

There are also countries with no regulations on crypto because they do not consider cryptocurrencies to be financial instruments. Bulgaria is one of them.

Top Countries Where Cryptocurrencies Are Legal: List 2023

Knowing where cryptocurrencies are legal is crucial for investors, businesses, and regulatory compliance. It helps determine investment options, where to operate crypto-related businesses, tax obligations, consumer protection, fostering innovation, facilitating international transactions, and avoiding legal issues. Cryptocurrency regulations change, so staying updated is vital.

The top countries where buying, selling, and holding crypto are: Canada, Portugal, Switzerland, Germany, Singapore, Japan, the Netherlands, Estonia, Malta, and Slovenia.

Why Are Countries Banning Crypto?

Countries are prohibiting the use of cryptocurrencies for various reasons, including:

  • Financial Stability: Some governments fear that the unregulated nature of cryptocurrencies could pose a risk to their financial systems.
  • Fraud and Scams: Cryptocurrencies are often associated with fraudulent schemes and scams.
  • Money Laundering and Terrorism Financing: Authorities worry that cryptocurrencies can be used to launder money and finance illegal activities.
  • Consumer Protection: Due to their volatile nature, cryptocurrencies can result in significant losses for retail investors.
  • Tax Evasion: Cryptocurrencies can be used to evade taxes.
  • Lack of Control: Cryptocurrencies operate independently of traditional financial systems. Some governments want more control over their monetary systems.
  • Security Concerns: Cryptocurrencies can be vulnerable to cyberattacks, and their theft can have wide-ranging consequences.
  • Monetary Policy: Central banks are concerned about the impact of cryptocurrencies on their ability to implement monetary policy.
  • Ideological Reasons: In some cases, governments have ideological reasons for prohibiting cryptocurrencies, such as concerns about decentralized finance challenging their authority.

These reasons vary from country to country, and some nations may impose partial restrictions or strict regulations rather than outright prohibitions.

Is Bitcoin Safe?

The safety of Bitcoin relies on multiple factors. Its decentralized blockchain technology provides robust network security, making it highly resistant to hacking. However, individual security practices, including secure storage and protection against theft or loss, play a crucial role in keeping Bitcoins safe. Additionally, Bitcoin’s safety can be influenced by its legal status in different countries, and users should also be mindful of its market volatility, which can lead to rapid price fluctuations. In summary, while Bitcoin can be secure when handled correctly, it is not devoid of risks.

The Bottom Line

In conclusion, the legal landscape for Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies is diverse, with countries taking varying approaches to regulation. While some nations embrace these digital assets and work to integrate them into their economies, others impose strict restrictions or outright bans. The evolving nature of cryptocurrency regulations underscores the need for users, investors, and businesses to stay informed and compliant with the laws in their respective jurisdictions. As the global financial landscape continues to transform, the status of cryptocurrencies will likely remain a subject of ongoing debate and adaptation.


There are only a handful of countries worldwide that have banned cryptocurrency at all. Cryptocurrency is legal in the USA, Canada, Israel, Turkey, the European Union (EU), Venezuela, India, Australia. Other countries like Ukraine are moving towards the development of effective crypto regulations, and there are territories that don’t regulate and don’t prohibit the use of crypto as well.
Crypto is considered a legal tender in El Salvador and CAR. Most countries still implicitly ban cryptocurrencies.

The US government holds possession of 205 515 BTC.

For now, crypto is a legal tender in El Salvador and CAR.

As of this moment, countries that have banned cryptocurrency are: Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Bolivia, China, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Ghana, Iraq, Morocco, Nepal, North Macedonia, Qatar, Tunisia.

Yes, Bitcoin is considered legitimate and legal in many countries around the world. However, the legal status of Bitcoin can vary from one country to another, and some countries have imposed restrictions or regulations on its use. Many people consider crypto a bubble or a pyramid scheme.
It's important for individuals to be aware of the legal status of Bitcoin in their respective countries and comply with any relevant regulations. Overall, Bitcoin is widely recognized as a legitimate form of digital currency and is traded on various cryptocurrency exchanges globally.